JUCS - Journal of Universal Computer Science 27(12): 1275-1299, doi: 10.3897/jucs.77153
Designing, Realizing, Running, and Evaluating Virtual Museum – a Survey on Innovative Concepts and Technologies
expand article infoNelson Baloian, Daniel Biella§, Wolfram Luther§, José A. Pino, Daniel Sacher§
‡ Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile§ University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Germany
Open Access

This paper presents a survey of innovative concepts and technologies involved in virtual museums (ViM) that shows their advantages and disadvantages in comparison with physical museums. We describe important lessons learned during the creation of three major virtual museums between 2010 and 2020 with partners at universities from Armenia, Germany, and Chile. Based on their categories and features, we distinguish between content-, communication- and collaboration-centric museums with a special focus on learning and co-curation. We give an overview of a generative approach to ViMs using the ViMCOX metadata format, the curator software suite ViMEDEAS, and a comprehensive validation and verification management. Theoretical considerations include exhibition design and new room concepts, positioning objects in their context, artwork authenticity, digital instances and rights management, distributed items, private museum and universal access, immersion, and tour and interaction design for people of all ages. As a result, this survey identifies different approaches and advocates for stakeholders’ collaboration throughout the life cycle in determining the ViM's direction and evolution, its concepts, collection type, and the technologies used with their requirements and evaluation methods. The paper ends with a brief perspective on the use of artificial intelligence in ViMs.

Museum category, virtual reality, interaction, co-curation, generative approach, software and hardware support, evaluation, standardized metadata, ViMEDEAS, ViMCOX